Several regions of the world have been battling the encroachment of the ocean for centuries. Meanwhile, climate change effects continue to become more frequent through the years. One of the most recent examples in the United States is hurricane Sandy, which devastated coastal areas of New York City and New Jersey. Storm surge from Sandy destroyed millions of dollars in infrastructure and left a large number of people without a home.
Another climate change issue of concern is sea level rise (SLR), which is occurring in coastal environments worldwide and poses a major threat to communities and infrastructure. Cities along the eastern coast of the United States are currently being affected by SLR; therefore, adaptation is crucial to guarantee resiliency.
This study acknowledges and elaborates on previous studies related to sea level rise and climate-change driven effects on people, environment, and infrastructure. A diversity of adaptation strategies are discussed in terms of sustainable soft and engineered solutions of potential value applicable in Miami, Florida. Lastly, a case study on the assessment, modeling, and implementation of dike systems along this coastline is described.