Soil erosion and sediment transport by stormwater runoff may be amplified by one to two orders-of-magnitude during construction activities (USEPA, 2009). The Lake Simcoe Protection Plan (MOE, 2009) has set high standards for stormwater management, including runoff from new developments. In this research a residential construction site on the Lake Simcoe shoreline was studied. A multi-barrier compost biofilter system was installed and monitored. Total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in runoff, on the upstream and downstream of the biofilter, were measured to assess the removal efficiency of the system. The turbidity of runoff samples was also measured to determine if turbidity can be cost-effectively used as a surrogate water quality indicator for both TSS and TP monitoring. The results of this research suggest that compost biofilters may be effectively used as part of a treatment train approach for erosion and sediment control.